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A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two parts, both the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the construction itself, which can be constructed from the termites. Nests can be broadly divided into three main categories: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but always connected to the ground via shelter tubes).184 Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the ground with ground contact and are created out of earth and sand.
Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.186 Primitive termites of now nest in wooden constructions such as logs, stumps and the dead parts of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.184.
To construct their nests, termites mostly utilize faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material. Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and timber ), and dirt, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are observable, as many nests in tropical forests are located underground.186 Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are great examples of subterranean nest contractors, as they only reside inside tunnels.
Nests and mounds protect the termites' tender bodies against desiccation, mild, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.188 Nests made out of carton are especially weak, and so the inhabitants use counter-attack strategies against invading predators. .
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Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change results from bacterial decay in the gut of the termites: they utilize their faeces as a carton building material. Arboreal termites nests can account for as much as 2% of above ground carbon storage in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps.
Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is known as polycalism. Polycalic species of termites form multiple nests, or calies, connected with subterranean chambers.107 The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to possess polycalic species.191 Polycalic nests appear to be frequent in mound-building species but polycalic arboreal nests have been observed in a few species of Nasutitermes.191.
Nests are considered mounds if they protrude from the earth's surface. A mound provides termites the exact same protection as a nest but is stronger.189 Mounds found in regions having torrential and continuous rainfall are in danger of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can offer protection against the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.
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For example, Cubitermes colonies build narrow tunnels utilized as strong points, since go the width of the tunnels is small enough for troops to block.192 A highly protected room, known as the"queens cell", houses the queen and king and can be used as a last line of defence. .
Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complicated structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds. These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 ft ), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.56 Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) high and 2.5 metres (8 feet) wide.
The sculptured mounds occasionally have fancy and distinctive types, like the ones of their compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds using the long axis oriented about northsouth, which gives them their common name.194195 This orientation has been experimentally shown to help thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning when avoiding overheating from the midday sun.
Termites construct shelter tubes, also known as earthen tubes or mud tubes, that start in the ground. These shield tubes can be found on walls and other structures.197 Constructed by termites during the night, a time of higher humidity, so these tubes provide protection to termites from potential predators, especially ants.198 Shelter tubes also give high humidity and darkness and permit workers to collect food resources that cannot be accessed in any other manner.197 All these passageways are produced from dirt and faeces and are normally brown in colour.
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They range from less than 1 cm to several cm in diameter, but may extend dozens of metres in length.198.
Owing to their own wood-eating customs, many termite species can do significant harm to unprotected buildings and other wooden structures.199 Termites play an important function as decomposers of wood and vegetative material, and the conflict with humans occurs where structures and landscapes containing structural timber components, cellulose derived structural materials and ornamental vegetation provide termites with a trusted source of food and moisture.200;Their custom of remaining concealed often results in their presence being undetected until the timbers are severely damaged, leaving a thin coating of a wall that protects them in the environment.201 Of the 3,106 species known, only 183 species cause harm; 83 species cause significant damage to wooden structures.199 In North America, 18 subterranean species are pests202; in Australia, 16 species have an economic effect; in the Indian subcontinent 26 species are considered pests, and in tropical Africa, 24.